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Countries without Extradition 2023

Don’t tell your friends or loved ones where you are going as well as not to leave and noticeable signs as to where you are going and your intention for leaving. In Part 2 cases the court will decide whether to discharge the case or send the case to the Secretary of State for the Home Department to consider extradition. Myth Four: Interpol has a handle on the problem of Red Notice abuse. Afghanistan, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Armenia, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bosnia and. You should read up on the rules and regulations of any potential country that you plan to choose as an escape destination. If you do decide to move to a Gulf country, just make sure you don’t take an Israeli passport with you. It only takes a minute to sign up. Bromund, ICE Wrongly Continues, supra note 15. § 3190, and forwards it with the original request to the Justice Department’s Office of International Affairs “OIA”. The Extradition Treaties/Arrangements signed with these countries are working smoothly. Preparing visual presentation of the collected data;c. About our group Once you join the Global Quality team you will realize you are part of a family of global professional. US Foreign Assistance. To become a ghost is much harder than you might think. Largest Navies in the World. Aparticulars of the person sought, together with any other information which would help to establish his identity, nationality or citizenship and residence;. People seeking to evade arrest occasionally rely upon this legal loophole and cross into a different country. Bankman Fried’s arrest is the first step in a multistage legal process to transfer the onetime crypto billionaire to U. There are on average 400 700 people that are extradited back to the United States every year. It initially consisted of six colour coded notices; Red, Blue, Green, Yellow, Black, and Purple. Opened, Closed, and Pending Outgoing Extradition CasesCalendar Years 1990 2000.

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Countries with no extradition treaty with US

As a result, individuals who are wanted by authorities in these countries may be able to find sanctuary in the UK. Mexico will extradite if the maximum penalty is a life sentence, however. These countries currently have no extradition treaty with the United States. Certification by the NCA is therefore required before an arrest or provisional arrest can be made. When considering whether to give consent, attention must be paid to whether the transfer will prolong the wanted person’s loss of liberty. Be sure to get the crucial guide we just released, The Easiest Way to a Second Passport. However, it is important to mention here that extradition is http://normsbookclub.com/MyBB2/member.php?action=profile&uid=1066640 a murky business in practice. Specialized training in police reform, strategic planning, project management, trainingmanagement, certification in train the trainers and training delivery is an asset. Nonetheless, the lack of extradition countries with India can pose challenges for law enforcement and may hinder the fight against cross border crime. Get rid of and delete old emails and accounts as well as old forums and social media accounts. In order to further its aims, the Organization needs the constant and active co operation of its Members, who should do all within their power which is compatible with the legislations of their countries to participate diligently in its activities. Bishop allegedly bludgeoning to death his wife age 37, mother age 68, and three sons ages 5, 10 and 14 in Bethesda, Maryland, on March 1, 1976. However, there are a few countries in the ASEAN region that do not have extradition treaties with the US. If the need for telephone communication arises in urgent cases, call theDepartment L/LEI, 202 647 5111, or 202 647 7324. Art 6, European Convention on Extradition 1957. However, certain countries on the continent are bustling with economic opportunities. The more you use digital communication the easier it is that someone will be able to locate you. Annual General Meeting of Shareholders. Here are 7 Countries to Consider. Both Russia and China can be ideal places to reside for both short term and long term. D an international criminal court or tribunal; or. Government’s modern extradition treaties. Ome of this decade’s greatest heroes will never be known, and some of its most beloved people are basically shams. Specifically, these are cases in which proceedings are taken against the person requested for a political or military crime, cases in which the request for extradition is formulated for reasons of persecution based on reasons of race, nationality, religion, language, political opinions, etc. Removal of Interpol Red Notices and Diffusions, complaints to the ECHR, and asylum.

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Committee of Experts on the Operation of European Conventions on Co operation in Criminal Matters PC OC

Even if the charges are frames, the chances of surviving the extradition request are considered grim in a developed western country. 14, citing a glitch in the exchange’s system upgrade. Home secretary Jack Straw decided to deport suspected Nazi war criminal Konrad Kalejs. Sign up for instant delivery of our free report. As a matter of policy, the United States no longer negotiates new extraditiontreaties if the partner country is unwilling or unable to commit to extraditionof nationals. The Council of Ministers approved that South Africa accede to the MLA Convention. The Extradition Unit, part of the Serious Economic, Organised Crime and International Directorate SEOCID in the CPS, conducts extradition proceedings on behalf of foreign authorities or States for requested persons arrested in England and Wales. This means that a person suspected of or convicted of a crime in the U. If your caution/conviction has been ‘stepped down’ your police certificate will state ‘No Live Trace’. Delete your browser history as well as get rid of old former credit cards you left open. Extradition raises human rights concerns in determining this balance in relation to the extraditable person. Learn how mistress of re invention, Catherine O’Brien, scammed her way around rural Ireland. It serves as a deterrent against offenders who consider escape as an easy way to subvert India’s justice system. Interpol’s day to day operation is managed by a General Secretariat under the direction of a secretary general, who is appointed for a five year term by the General Assembly. Our article will focus on a select few countries out of that list. However, burglary and arson were listed as eligible offenses, so anyone suspected of those crimes could be apprehended by Canadian officials and handed over to U. The first requirement is usually fulfilled with regard to indictments in the various district courts of New York. Extradition is the process where one country asks another to return a person in order to stand trial or to serve a sentence.

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“1 negotiating an updated extradition treaty which ensures that drug traffickers can be extradited to the United States, or. See political offence exception. US Foreign Assistance. The observance of the rule against the extradition of nationals appears as a distinctive feature of civil law jurisdictions, as opposed to common law jurisdictions. Usually, the RFFI will be case specific. Parallel criminal proceedings or sentencing in France may delay extradition. Book an Online Consultation. “We are still investigating whether he involved local people in those videos, but so far the crime he committed was only in his homeland. The process of extradition is complex and can be stressful. “The extradition treaty between the U. When a foreigner commits a crime in Thailand and is incarcerated due to such an offence it is not an automatic process where a foreigner will be sent back to his or her country to be trialled. In an outgoing extradition request, OIA has a more substantive role in ensuring the request is legally sufficient.

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Countries with no extradition treaty with uk?

The NSCN IM was actually buying cheap Chinese versions of Kalashnikovs, rocket and grenade launchers, handguns, ammunitions and explosives from the Chinese arms maker. There is not a shred of historical evidence that the US economy needs a 2. Ii in any other case, by imprisonment for a maximum term of two years or more, or by a more severe punishment, subject to a relevant extradition agreement. Mr D’Monte became known to authorities following the shooting of Canadian gangster Kevin LeClair, in which they believed he played a vital role. Even in nations with treaties in place, geopolitical issues or legal concerns can lead to disputes over extradition. The cooperation requests are published in the forms listed above and then reflected on the INTERPOL member states. Article 8 does not only address the needs of children, but also all family members, yet the high threshold required to satisfy Article 8 means that the vulnerability of children is the most likely circumstance to meet this threshold. In such cases, the case must be sent via the Director General of Public Prosecution to the Ministry for a decision. American Embassy: 1 246 436 4950Nations covered: Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Dominica, French Guiana, French West Indies, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guyana, Martinique, Montserrat, Nassau Islands of St. Mon Fri 15:00 24:00 GMT UK +44 20 3287 6560 USA +1 305 517 7570. The Secretary of State must order extradition unless the surrender of a person is prohibited by certain statutory provisions in the 2003 Act. In this scenario, the Act gives primacy to domestic proceedings. Behind this emerging protection of nationals from extradition was the idea that one had a fundamental right to be tried by the judge of one’s own country. Therefore, that article prohibits the imposition, with respect to identical facts, of several criminal penalties as a result of different proceedings brought for those purposes judgment of 22 March 2022, bpost, C‑117/20, EU:C:2022:202, paragraph 33 and the case law cited. ‍ The extradition request from the Requesting State that has an extradition treaty with Thailand shall be transmitted to the Central Authority. He was allowed to retire in September 2019 but a prosecutor was unable to interview Tudoran in October because, by then, the former judge was in a psychiatric hospital. The intrinsic viscosity of biological macromolecules. Extradition is least likely in countries that have neither a treaty nor diplomatic relations with one another. § 3182, and that a federal court may enforce the governor’s duty to return the fugitive to the demanding state. These two fast growing Eastern European nations might not have been first on your list. The Justice Department was unable to provide names of fugitives still at large out of concern that disclosure could compromise the possibility of a fugitive’s apprehension. My experience with the Berkeley Square Solicitors was amazing. Paul Watson, the leader of the environmental activist organization, the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society, has been arrested and released on bond in Germany for alleged criminal activity in Costa Rican waters nearly ten years ago. No matter the reason, no extradition countries provide safe havens for criminals. There are no extradition countries in Australia. 6 Comments Add a Comment ». Once the United States requests provisional arrest pursuant to the treaty, the fugitive may be arrested and detained or, in some countries, released on bail following the issuance of an order of arrest by the foreign authorities.

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Your rights under the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations

656, providing for the surrender of persons committing defined crimes within a foreign country occupied by or under the control of the United States and fleeing to the United States, or any territory thereof, or the District of Columbia, Cuba is foreign territory which cannot be regarded in any constitutional, legal or international sense as a part of the territory of the United States, and this is not affected by the fact that it is under a military governor appointed by and representing the President in the work of assisting the inhabitants of the island in establishing a. Article 54 The right to public assembly, demonstration and mobilization in conformity with the law is recognized. The family patriarch is weighing his options in case the accusations his son Kendall made in the press conference at the end of season two are investigated, and flying somewhere without an extradition treaty could put him beyond the reach of American authorities. Let us know if you need help in putting together an offshore protection solution. OIA also negotiates agreements on international criminal matters in concert with the U. These restrictions are normally clearly spelled out in the extradition treaties that a government has agreed upon. For example, they may be able to extradite them from a third country that does have an extradition treaty with the US. Clause 67 would provide that a surrender order would prevail over any prior warrant or other order under which the person was detained in Canada or was at liberty under terms and conditions. Rickards: “Don’t Buy A Single Ounce Of Gold. US Foreign Assistance. As INTERPOL itself states, a Red Notice “is not an international arrest warrant. If there is an extradition agreement in place and a person commits a crime and then hightails it overseas — and the US government finds you — they can work with the foreign government in order to get the person back to the United States by way of extradition. The complaint alleges that the government failed to provide notice or consult with La Posta about the project. You can check whether that country has an extradition treaty with your home country. There are a number of countries around the world that do not have extradition treaties with the United States. LibLynx Access Management. We recently launched the Peters and Peters Extradition UK blog site authored by our extradition experts Jasvinder Nakhwal and Nick Vamos. As a bonus, you’ll also receive our popular read, Doug Casey’s International Man Communiqué. The Act would also fill vacant CCF positions with candidates who demonstrate a record of respect for the rule of law. He fled to the United Kingdom in 2018 and has been hiding there ever since. But will action follow. Do your own research. The United States’ Central Intelligence Agency CIA allegedly operates a global extraordinary rendition programme, which from 2001 to 2005 captured an estimated 150 people and transported them around the world. It is regularly updated to reflect changes in law and practice. The protection of any person whose trial has been finally disposed of in one Member State, irrespective of his or her nationality and the lawfulness of his or her stay, against further prosecution for the same acts in another Member State contributes to the attainment of that objective. Yuriy’s speaking and teaching engagements on the subject of INTERPOL red notice abuse. That means someone can be surrendered to another state for prosecution or punishment for crimes committed in the requesting country’s jurisdiction. Maximum penalty: Twenty years in prison and $500,000 fine. Other good options for UK citizens include Armenia, Belarus, South Korea, Georgia, and Kazakhstan.

9 What must be included as part of a valid extradition request made by the foreign state?

Bahamas: Government Defends Expedited Extradition of the “Barefoot Bandit”. They Have Not Returned His N124,000. Non extradition countries are countries that have not entered into an extradition treaty between them for the return of fugitives from either country. The decision must be in place within 30 days after the request was received. SingaporeApplyمنذ ٢٥ يومًا. Vanuatu is also a tax free country. This was the second time that India made this request about this person. Murder and attempt and conspiracy to murder. Furthermore, both have a history of rather ‘cold’ relations, so are unlikely to want to play nice. Now according to a letter dated October 8, 2021 from the Minister of Gender Betty Amongi Ongom, cabinet has scraped this off the requirements, save for those who are seeking to work in security. While OIA officials acknowledge that increased mutual legal assistance and treaty negotiation responsibilities do not excuse OIA’s case management problems, they assert that these responsibilities increased OIA’s overall workload and affected OIA’s ability to handle its extradition responsibilities in a timely manner. If you’ve been charged with a misdemeanor in this state, a Tampa criminal defense attorney may be able to resolve the case for you with no need for you to return to Florida. House of Representatives wrote to Chief Executive Carrie Lam asking that the bill be “withdrawn from consideration”, stating that “the proposed legislation would irreparably damage Hong Kong’s cherished autonomy and protections for human rights by allowing the Chinese government to request extradition of business persons, journalists, rights advocates, and political activists residing in Hong Kong. Once again, the myth stems from the error of thinking of Interpol as an international police agency, instead of as a coordinating mechanism. By Virginia Canter and Gabe Lezra. Where one country doesn’t recognise the other they can’t sign an extradition treaty, or indeed any kind of international treaty. Ifakemi Adeshina is wanted by Brazil for international drug smuggling, and Festus Okromi is wanted by India over criminal conspiracy. 2While presenting reports under Sub Section 7. Countries with corrupt or autocratic governments are most notorious for abusing Interpol’s system of notices.

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Niger, Oman, Qatar, Russia, Rwanda, Samoa, São Tomé and Príncipe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia,. There are a number of reasons why this might be the case, including the fact that New Zealand is a small country with a limited number of resources. Nick is Doug Casey’s globetrotting companion and is the Senior Editor of Casey Research’s International Man. A federal grand jury, which can comprise close to a couple dozen members, may consider whether the evidence prosecutors have presented meets the legal standard of “probable cause” — that is, if it is enough to show the likelihood that potential criminal actions took place — to justify bringing criminal charges. CT:CON 595; 08 06 2015. Get the ACCURATE list of the 56 countries that have no extradition with the UK in 2023. Vietnam and Cambodia are especially popular tourist and business destinations. For instance, in the United States, most criminal prosecutions occur at the state level, and most foreign relations occur at the federal level. It is responsible, amongst other things, for circulating international alerts known as “notices” and requests for information relating to specific criminal activity known as “diffusions” from one police force to their counterparts around the world. Once you have a comprehensive list, you can select your ideal location from there based on your personal preferences and situational requirements. You should read up on the rules and regulations of any potential country that you plan to choose as an escape destination. Bilateral and multilateral treaties and conventions offer an international basis for extradition cooperation between the UK and the country seeking extradition. US Foreign Assistance. US Foreign Assistance. The International notice system was created in 1946 as Interpol re established itself after World War II in the Parisian suburb of Saint Cloud. As a non member observer state at the UN, Palestine does not have a seat in the General Assembly. How could it go wrong. The country is not part of the EU. CT:CON 595; 08 06 2015.


The standard of proof within extradition proceedings generally refers to the discretion and interpretation of the court, unlike the standard of proof applicable within criminal proceedings, which is beyond any reasonable doubt. The government opposes bond in extradition cases. Our clients are people accused of violating federal and state laws, people facing extradition due to international criminal charges, and people being investigated for possible criminal violations. Please make all inquiries related to program content and CPD/MCLE credit hours prior to purchase. Citizens: US citizens are limited in their tax reduction possibilities due to FATCA and CFC laws. There’s reason to believe that Do has already prepared for the worst: CoinDesk has reported that he’s recently moved $67 million worth of bitcoin. As I mentioned at the outset, even if true, Cuba’s conduct concerning fugitives is simply irrelevant for deciding whether or not it meets the explicit criteria for designation, which is, does it “provide support for international terrorism. However, extradition is not granted for certain categories of offences eg, political, military or tax offences depending on the legal extradition instrument that governs each case. He is wanted for his alleged involvement in the murder of a co worker in Charlotte, North Carolina, in 2016. Let us know if you need help in putting together an offshore protection solution. In EAW cases, the final decision to grant extradition shall, in total, not exceed 60 days. Section 91b of the 1994 Act. The Secretary of State is not required to consider any representations received after the expiry of the 4 week period. In many cases, individuals who have been granted asylum in a no extradition country are able to live without fear of being returned to their home country and facing imprisonment or torture. The UKCA liaises with the relevant prosecuting authority to make sure the papers are delivered in enough time to meet the deadline. Do not always go by mainstream media reports. Therefore the demand to efficiently remove Red or other Notices is rather high and often requires not only to approach Interpol but also national law enforcement to inquire for information kept and processed in police databases and networks where traces of data which led to the Notice are ‘mirrored’ and remain if not effectively removed as well. Queries in relation to extradition. Or the crazy parties of Carnival. Government has labeled a “domestic terrorist,” it might not be implausible. Countries that have poor diplomatic relations with the US are unlikely to extradite fugitives even if they have extradition treaties in place. Find out if you qualify for one of the world’s best passports in 2023. We also coordinate networks of police and experts in different crime areas, who come together through working groups and at conferences to share experiences and ideas.

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Posted by Richard Barr May 11, 2022 Countries 0. Some of them—like North Korea—are no surprise, considering the state of foreign affairs. Extradition requests for fugitives sought for narcotics offenses as well as for other crimes, and divide the information to reflect each category. Guinea Bissau and Comoros do not have any extradition treaties but they are both members of Interpol which makes it easier to track down criminals. International Edition. US Foreign Assistance. While a drone strike is unlikely for now, the U. In this blog, we have discussed the process of the Canadian Extradition Process to help you understand what course of action you can take if you ever find yourself being charged with a criminal offence. 53 On the hearing of an appeal against an order of committal of a person, the court of appeal may. Gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States. Behind this emerging protection of nationals from extradition was the idea that one had a fundamental right to be tried by the judge of one’s own country. Generally speaking, for an extradition to succeed, the alleged criminal act can’t be political in nature and must be a crime in both jurisdictions, and the suspect cannot be in danger of receiving the death penalty or torture if transferred. Extradition counteracts this tactic by establishing cooperation between the law enforcement agencies of both the first and second countries. US Foreign Assistance. Or perhaps fly to a country that has a stable law and order ecosystem. Copyright © 2023 Offshore Citizen. The Philippines, India, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Portugal, South Korea, South Africa, and the Czech Republic also have extradition treaties with Hong Kong. The provisions of the Act on the European arrest warrant and the surrender procedures thereby replace the provisions of the European Convention on Extradition of 13 December 1957 and its two Additional Protocols of 15 October 1975 and 17 March 1978, insofar as the Council Framework Decision on the European arrest warrant and the surrender procedures is applicable in relations between Slovenia and other Member States.

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Committee of experts on the operation of European conventions on co operation in criminal matters PC OC – A Council of Europe committee of experts in international co operation in criminal matters. Today, we have 63 legal attaché offices—commonly known as legats—and more than two dozen smaller sub offices in key cities around the globe, providing coverage for more than 180 countries, territories, and islands. Many of those who abuse CBI schemes, are not aware the extradition treaties exist with CBI countries and fugitives can be stripped of their citizenship and can be deported back. Law enforcement should also consider applying to withdraw any related domestic warrants. It offers nomads, travellers and fugitives a great lifestyle and good investment opportunities. When the Minister of Justice deems it to be appropriate to surrender the fugitive, in the case of a decision rendered as provided for in paragraph 1, item 3 of Article 10, the Minister shall order the Superintending Prosecutor of the Tokyo High Public Prosecutors Office to surrender the fugitive, and at the same time notify the fugitive to that effect; however, when the Minister deems it to be inappropriate to surrender the fugitive, the Minister shall immediately notify the Superintending Prosecutors of the Tokyo High Public Prosecutors Office and the fugitive to that effect, and at the same time order the Superintending Prosecutor of the Tokyo High Public Prosecutors Office to release the fugitive who is detained under a permit of detention. Posted by Richard Barr Jun 20, 2022 Countries 0. The decision concludes on behalf of the EU the agreement with the US on extradition. Each Contracting State agrees to extradite to the other, in accordance with the provisions of this Treaty, any person who is wanted for prosecution or the imposition or enforcement of a sentence in the Requesting State for an extraditable offence. Ultimately, INTERPOL operates outside of any judicial process or scrutiny. What is the INTERPOL watch list. Free yourself from absolute dependence on any one country. That means someone can be surrendered to another state for prosecution or punishment for crimes committed in the requesting country’s jurisdiction. The firm assists foreign investors throughout Asia and maintains offices throughout ASEAN, including in Singapore, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, and Da Nang in Vietnam, Munich, and Esen in Germany, Boston, and Salt Lake City in the United States, Milan, Conegliano, and Udine in Italy, in addition to Jakarta, and Batam in Indonesia. On the other hand, countries such as Spain and Yemen are known for returning fugitives even without an official extradition treaty. 3187 Provisional Arrest and Detention within ExtraterritorialJurisdiction. He was wanted over his alleged role in the 2009 shooting of Kevin LeClair. A new agreement was made in 1985, which closed the loophole. Those individuals are often members of transnational criminal organizations, which originated in Nigeria but have spread throughout the world. At the Summit for Democracy of December 2021, the Czech Republic made the solemn pledge to speak out consistently in support of civil society, push back against the shrinking of civic space and provide practical and moral support to human rights defenders, as well as promote accountability for human rights violations.

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Even if the charges are frames, the chances of surviving the extradition request are considered grim in a developed western country. Be Winter Ready 2022 booklet. An eighth special notice is issued at the request of the United Nations Security Council. Extradition is a formal agreement between countries whereby a person who is either wanted for or convicted of a crime in a particular country, but has fled to another, is legally returned to the first country. Delayed arrest and prosecution is, undeniably, a threat to India’s peace, safety and security. US Foreign Assistance. US Foreign Assistance. Let’s face it, China and Russia aren’t exactly best buddies with the US or western democracies. However, due to the constraints of federalism, any conditions on the extradition accepted by the federal government—such as not to impose the death penalty—are not binding on individual states. 679215 Registered office: 1 London Bridge Street, London, SE1 9GF. Where the requested person makes an unsuccessful appeal, extradition must take place within 28 days from the appeal decision becoming final. As regards EU law, it is clear that it does not ban the extradition of nationals but contains a reversed principle instead: the nationality ban cannot be invoked where the EAW is issued for the purpose of prosecution, and it may be invoked when the European Arrest Warrant is issued for the purpose of executing a custodial sentence. RogersFOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. The primary goal of Interpol is to improve police cooperation and fight transnational crime. Williams was also discouraged from promoting Black nationalist beliefs by the Cuban government. 2 When the Minister orders the discharge of a person and the person has made a claim for refugee protection under the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, the Minister shall send copies of all relevant documents to the minister responsible for that Act. Interpol issued a new refugee policy in 2015, stipulating that a red notice should not be issued against a refugee when it has been requested by the country from which the refugee initially fled. Mon Fri 15:00 24:00 GMT UK +44 20 3287 6560 USA +1 305 517 7570.


We provide detailed information to courts outside the United States regarding U. If the court determines the person is extraditable, the issue is referred back to the State Department, where the secretary decides whether or not to follow through with the extradition. Cambodia has much to offer for international travellers. He signed a two year, $16 million deal this offseason. Countries with no extradition are becoming rare. Where an appeal is dismissed, the requested person, or requesting State, can apply for leave to appeal to the Supreme Court against the High Court’s decision. If you are a US citizen you are obligated to pay taxes on all worldwide income. There are ongoing negotiations to resolve this conflict. Other countries, like Switzerland, have extradition treaties but do not extradite for certain financial crimes—which is why financier Marc Rich and Billions’s Bobby Axelrod both fled there. The man was arrested during a raid on Saturday evening “at an address in Centurion”, near the capital Pretoria, South African police said in a statement. The one thing that one would worry about is the possibility of extradition from such countries. A Diffusion is a request for cooperation and information sharing from Interpol member countries as opposed to the formal arrest request of the Red Notice. Has no extradition treaty with China. As a non member observer state at the UN, Palestine does not have a seat in the General Assembly. In 1991, the NKR declared independence from Azerbaijan, but this has not been recognized by the international community. US Foreign Assistance. The third subsection fourth sentence applies correspondingly. 18, entered into force May 17, 1991, S. Layout of provisions, including. DONE in duplicate, in the English and French languages, each language version being equally authentic, at Washington this third day of December, one thousand nine hundred seventy one.